The parents are very much involved in their cubs education, one way or another. Those that aren't.. often lose their cubs if they are absent from a registered school system or or not educating them by the homeschooling systems which have interactive modules to keep track of their students and make sure they're THERE.
Each year they get a course in one of the other Cyantian cultures.
Transitional school is optional (which prepares students for the Academy)... there are OTHER life training schools that begin at this time for those who have no intention of getting into the Academy or going offworld. The group in Akaelae are old enough they don't HAVE to go, but unfortunately, they look much younger and wouldn't be able to get a job.
Summer Session of transitional school is a full 3 months long, but if it's their first session there, it's only a month and a half. They would then be expected to spend the second month and a half studying and then take their third round of tests. The first round of testing takes place the second week. This was how the wolves gauged a student's ability to learn on their own and with formal instruction. After their first month and a half in class, they would take the second round of tests. All three sets of scores would then be used to chart out their courses for the majors they were interested in.
The tests aren't 100% accurate, so they're repeated over the next few years. Also, being based on Wolf research, they're not as accurate for non-wolves. They do provide a guide for extra-curricular activities though. (Akaelae, strip 504)
The Transitional school that Darius Akaelae and friends attended was Sieva School.
There is a starting school at Mars Academy. It's much smaller because at the moment, the only kids are Tae, Kea, Gideon and a handful of kids that are the children of mainly instructors and faculty. These smaller schools are just general. At least 95% of the Academy at this point consists of students and young single adults or adults whose children are grown, etc. Not a whole lot of kids.
Digni schools tend to be different from Wolven schools. Digni had scholars who taught ten to twenty students of all ages at the same time. The students have the same teachers for most of their lives and were often shuffled amongst them depending on their proficiencies.